Many institutions also are reluctant to do large-scale mortgage modifications because they will hurt the balance sheets. After all, if a loan is modified, the bank has to take a write-down on the portion of the loan it is swallowing. If lots of loans are modified, that means a lot of write-downs.
At this moment in the financial crisis, banks are trumpeting their new-found profitability and racing to return bailout money to the Treasury. They've been able to do so in part by pretending that their loan portfolios, across the board, are healthier than they actually are. The government's willingness to ease the rules surrounding mark-to-market accounting have helped this effort. (This is not true of every bank, I should note: JPMorgan Chase, the healthiest of the big banks, has also been the most aggressive about modifying mortgages.)
Sure, foreclosure ultimately costs the bank more money than a modification would. But foreclosures these days take a long time — as much as 18 months in some states. And all that time the banks can keep the loans on their books at inflated values. Daniel Alpert, the managing partner of Westwood Capital, calls this practice "extend and pretend." In fact, he said, he has been hearing that banks aren't even willing to conduct so-called short sales anymore. Those are sales where the borrower asks the bank to sell the house for whatever it can get, and the bank in turn lets the borrower walk away from the loss that results from the sale.
"Banks are saying no because they don't want to take the loss," said Mr. Alpert. "They would rather foreclose. That is just wrong."
In truth, servicers and banks don't yet have powerful enough incentives to do large-scale mortgage modifications. The servicers and modification experts I spoke to this week all agreed that the $1,000-per-modification being dangled by the government was pretty meaningless, given the amount of time, money and effort they require.
So now that the carrot hasn't worked especially well, the government is taking out the stick. That letter the administration sent out on Thursday did not mince words. It demanded that the servicers begin "adding more staff than previous planned, expanding call centers beyond their current size, providing an escalation path for borrowers dissatisfied with the service they have received, bolstering training of representatives, developing extra online tools, and sending out additional mailings to borrowers who may be eligible for the program."
And the laggards? Starting next month, the government plans to begin publishing data showing which servicers are doing well and which are doing poorly, thus trying to shame them into doing the right thing. And, of course, there is that July 28 meeting, in which all these points will be made, I suspect, rather forcefully.
Apparently, the only incentive left is a good swift kick in the rear.
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